Tyrone Township was settled in 1775 and founded in 1787. According to 2017 records, the population of Tyrone Township is 1,869. The township contains the hamlets of Skelp, Arch Spring, Culp, Sickles Corner, and Elberta.

Tyrone Township is located in northern Blair County, south of the borough of Tyrone (itself surrounded by Snyder Township). The northeast border of Tyrone Township is the Blair County–Huntingdon County line. The remainder of the township is bordered to the northwest and southeast by Brush Mountain, a nearly continuous mountain ridge that makes a sharp loop around the southwestern end of the township. The majority of the settled portion of the township is in Sinking Valley, between the two arms of the mountain.

According to the United States Census Bureau, Tyrone Township has a total area of 41.9 square miles (108.4 km2), of which 41.8 square miles (108.3 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km2), or 0.11%, is water. This includes over 18 miles of township roadways.